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external image handprint.jpgChild Psychology:

Is the study of the stages of a child's growth from birth to adolescence. It includes the observation and understanding of factors such as social experiences, relationships, media, and environmental settings during their development, and how each of those elements will eventually shape who they are, how they view the world, their personal values, and their identity and place in society.

external image handprint.jpgChild Development Theories:
-Erik Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development Theory: Theory that includes development throughout the entire human lifespan. Each stage of development is focused of overcoming some kind of conflict. The child's success or "failure" when approaching and dealing with each conflict will have some kind of future outcom, and will effect their overall functioning.
-Watson's, Palvol's, and Skinner's Behavioral Development Theroies: Focuses on only observable behaviors of children, which are influenced by environmental factors.
-John Bowlby's Social Attatchment Theory: Theory that emotional attatchment to other human beings is an evolutionary component and aids in survival. Explains how early childhood experiences infuences development,behavior, and r elationships later in life.
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external image hand2.jpg-Piaget's Cognitive Development Theory: Theory that children begin life with a different way of thinking than an adult mind. Covers the develoment of children from birth to adolescence. Explains their learning process and how they concieve the world through four different stages: Sensory Motor stage (infant-2 years), Preopertion Stage(2-7 years), Concrete Operations Stage(7-11 years), and Formal Operations Stage(11 years and up)
external image hand3.jpgSensory Motor Stage: Birth to 2 Years
-Children go from being a newborn to walking, talking, and starting to be able to make sense of the world around them.
-"Object permanency" developes: the ability to understand that even when a person or object is removed from their line of sight, it still exists. For example, they can now understand that if a ball rolls under a chair and they can no longer see it, it still exists, but it is not visible under the chair. This is a very important understanding for children, because it provides an increased sense of safety and security now that they can understand that when their mother leaves the room, she hasn't disappeared all together and will eventually return.
external image hand3.jpgPreoperational Stage: 2-7 Years
-Identity is formed, children learn how to function in social settings.
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Language skills develop rapidly. Children begin to express what they are thinking and feeling.
-But children in the preoperational stage can also be egocentric or one-sided, meaning that they believe that everyone sees the world in the way that they do. They are not yet aware of the perspectives of others, and cannot consider two points of views at once.
external image hand3.jpgConcrete Operations Stage: 7-11 Years
- Ability to consider a number of factors simultaneously is developed, giving them the ability to solve increasingly complex problems.
-Children at this stage can now understand how to group like objects, even if they are not identical. For example, they are able to see that apples, oranges, cherries, and bananas are all types of fruit; even they are not exactly the same.

-They begin to develop
the ability to place things in order according to size. For example, they are able to take jars of varying heights and place them in order from tallest to shortest.
- Their understanding of things/topics that they have direct physical access to is strong. But children at this stage of development typically lack understanding of things that they haven't personally seen, touched, heard, tasted, or smelled.
external image hand3.jpgFormal Operations Stage: 11 and up
-Final phase of cognitive development. Children develop a much broader understanding of their surroundings and people in their lives.
-They are able to think in abstract ways.
-They can hypothesize possible outcomes to a given problem and then think of ways in which to test their theories.

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external image handprint.jpgInfancy:
-Very basic skills are developed: crying, nursing, co-ordination and the ability to represent images and objects with words.

-Parents are a very important influence during this time.
-Children at the ages of 7-9 months old get upset when they are separated from their parent(s).
-This reaction is called attachment, and is important in determining how a child will behave in future relationships as they mature.

external image handprint.jpgAttachment:

-Attachment is the bond between a child and a caregiver.

-Children became attached to those people who satisfied their needs, for example hunger or thirst.

-They become attached to the first person who nourishes them.

-Erik Erikson believed that babies become attached to those people they can trust to reliably fulfill their needs, making it an issue of trust, not just physical comfort.

-John Bowlby believed that children who are separated from their parents for a long period of time or are orphaned, become psychologically troubled, throw more tantrums, cry more often and go through periods of depression and despair, finally becoming indifferent to others. This behavior results from "disattachment."

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external image handprint.jpgSocial development & Identity:

-Identity begins to take shape the early years of a child.

external image hand2.jpg"Identification"

-Is a process in which a child attempts to look, act, feel and be like other people in their lives.

-A major factor of the social development and identity process is the discovery of one’s sex and the sex roles that go with it.

-Identity is formed through observation and imitation of others in their lives who are available and who the child pays a lot of attention to.

external image hand2.jpgKohlberg’s theory and stages in acquiring their sex roles:

* Basic sex-role identity -child labels themselves either boy or girl. * Sex-role stability - children realize that sex-roles are stable - girls will grow up to be women and boys to be men. * Sex-role constancy - children realize that no matter what their outward appearance is, their sex stays the same. For example, if they are a girl, they know that dressing as a boy will not make them a boy, and vice versa.

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external image handprint.jpgAggression & Prosocial Behavior:

-Child develops self-control and a conscienceness of their behavior in social situations, as well as their social surroundings and peer interactions.

-For a child to become accepted in their social group of peers, they must learn to get along with the other children. This learning involves controlling their aggression and showing empathy.

external image hand2.jpg-Aggression: An aggressive child seeks attention by being aggressive/hostile. If their aggressive behavior is not rewarded with attention, and instead they observe their victim being rewarded for not acting aggressively, the situation becomes an example for the aggressive child of how to act prosocially. And the child’s aggression usually will subside.
-Cognitive training can be used to stop aggressive behavior by simply telling a child that aggression hurts other people and makes the, unhappy, that it doesn't solve problems and that sharing and taking turns works better.
external image hand2.jpg-Prosocial behavior is a child's ability to express and feel "empathy." They display prosocial behavior by acting in ways to help another person. During early childhood, a child ability to empathize broadens and they become better at understanding the distress of others. These behaviours include sharing, helping, care-giving and showing compassion.
-Parents can promote prosocial behavior by modeling and behaving the way they wish the child to behave.
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external image handprint.jpgParenting Styles that influence child development:

-Parenting determines how a child will turn out.
-Four types of parenting styles:
external image hand3.jpg1. Authoritative: highly demanding and responsive (accepting, warm, and child-centered). Have equal relationship with child and communicate freely with each other.
OUTCOME: Child is more self-controlled, willing to explore, and more content and children raised in other types of parenting situations.

external image hand3.jpg2. Authoritarian: very controlling, assertive of their power, do not allow the child equal participation in communication.
OUTCOME: Child lacks social competence in dealing with others, are shy withdraw, don’t take initiative, have trouble making decisions, look for authority to decide what is right, lack spontaneity and intellectual curiosity.

external image hand3.jpg3. Undemanding/Indulgent: responsive and warm, passive, indulgent in their child, allow child to get away with a great deal, do not attempt to establish authority or control children.
OUTCOME: Child is relatively immature, has difficulty controlling impulses, accepting responsibility, and acting independently.

external image hand3.jpg4. Neglectful: undemanding, unresponsive, cold. Their role in child’s life is indifferent and uninvolved.
OUTCOME: Low self-esteem, increased dependency, impaired cognitive development, and academic/social/behavioral problems.

-Children are also influenced extended family, relatives, siblings, the media, the daycare that they attend, and by people in their community.

external image handprint.jpgMiddle Childhood:

-Early Adolesent years

-Friendships with peers become very important at this stage, as children begin to spend a significant amount of time with their peers. It is typically very important for a child to find a place within their social group.

-This calls for an increased attention to social rules and ability to consider other peoples point of view. Social status becomes important and children can become competitive with peers in their particular “social group”.

external image hand2.jpgSelf-Esteem:
-Most children begin to judge themselves and feel that they are judged by others at this age.
-If a child feels good about their self and their abilities and likes who they are they will have good self esteem.
-If a child feels as if they fail to demonstrate some kind of skill that they believe to make them worthy, they will have poor self esteem.

external image hand2.jpgFoundations For Self-esteem:
-The self-esteem of a child is influenced much by parenting.
-Three factors are important in order for a child to have a healthy level of self esteem:
1. Parents accept their children: Children with high self-esteem typically have mothers who are affectionate and authoritative. The child appreciates their mother's approval and interpret their mother's interest as an indication of their personal importance.
2. Parents set clearly defined limits for child: Parents who impose/enforce strict limits on children's activities give their children the idea
that norms are real and significant. This contributes to the child's self definition.
3. Parents respect child's individuality: Children are allowed a great deal of self-expression. This contributes to healthy self-esteem. Parents show respect for children's ideas by reasoning with them and considering and respecting their child’s of view.