Running Injuries

By: Meaghan O'Day
external image Muscle%20Runner.jpgI read the book The Running Foot Doctor by Steven I. Subotnick, D.P.M., M.S. I found this book very interesting because the doctor who wrote the book dealt with a lot of patients who were runners or other various athletes. As a runner myself, I thought it would be good to research what the most common injuries in running are and how they can be prevented or treated. Subotnick talked about his own experiences with running injuries and how he took a great interest in the way one's running style and feet can affect all the muscles, joints, and bones in the lower limbs. A main point that was pushed by Subotnick was the fact that podiatry was a medicine of biomechanics. Biomechanics is the study of mechanisms of movement. This study is observed a lot dealing with injuries related to movement, such as running.

The Injury List: Bunions - A bunion will look like a protrusion of the bone on the inside of the foot at the big toe joint. This will usually require surgery which is a remodeling of the first metatarsal phalangeal joint and forming a new joint by placing a medical-grad plastic joint or "spacer" in the great toes. Bunion Video
Bone Fracture Repair - Series: Indications
Bone Fracture Repair - Series: Indications
Stress Fractures- A stress fracture is a small crack in the bone that usually occurs because of overuse. Consistent microtrauma during running can cause a crack in the bone. A stress fracture is usually very small and less severe than most fracture injuries. A stress fracture will heal in about 3 weeks. Fractures external image achilles_tendon_rupture.jpg Achilles injuries- Injuries related to the Achilles tendon include Runner's Bump, a painful bursa on the outside of the heel along the area where the Achilles tendon attaches to the heel bone, and Tenosynovitis, the thickening of the sheath of the Achilles tendon. Achilles Tendon Tear Ankle Sprains- A sprain is a partial or complete tear of rupture of the ligaments. There are four degrees of sprains, including first-degree, second-degree, third-degree, and fourth-degree; the severity increases with the higher degree of the sprain. It is ideal to examine a sprain 20 minutes after the injury has occurred because there is less spasm and swelling and the doctor can feel and see the ligaments. external image r7_shinsplints.jpgShin Splints- The pain of a shin splint is felt in the posterior tibial muscle/tendon, which is a few inches below the knee on the medial/inner side of the leg. Hip and Low Bac k- Lower back problems that need the aid of an orthotic may be due to limb-length discrepancy and overpronation of one foot over the other. Hip Replacement Procedure Iliotibial (IT) Band Syndromeexternal image ITB.jpg- An IT band injury is associated with weak hip abductor muscles. The function of the muscles that work with the IT band is to abduct the leg; therefore, if the hip abductor muscles are weak the IT band is being overworked. The IT band is overwor ked because the muscle inserting into the IT band must contract harder and longer, which strains the IT band. external image A00350F01.jpg Runner's Knee- Doctors use the term "runner's knee" to refer to several medical conditions that cause pain around the front of the knee, including anterior knee pain syndrome, patellofemoral malaligament, and chondromalacia patella. The pain is found under or around the front of the patella where it connects to the lower end of the femur. Knee Replacement Procedure Plantar Facitiis- This injury is associated with the arch of the foot and the heel. This injury causes plantar heel pain.

Another important factor of running to consider is FORM. Form is important because it is the result of the way that feet are built, and in many ways the structure of one's feet can mess up their running gait and form which will eventually lead to injury. Running Form Video

Whenever an athlete, runner or in any other kind of sport, has an injury one of the most important things that they can do on their own before they see a doctor is RICE: Rest Ice Compression and Elevation. Here is a video that shows how to properly ice an injury. Icing Video

Bibliography The Running Foot Doctor. Steven I. Subotnick, D.P.M., M.S.
Running Injuries. Podiatry Channel. http://www.podiatrychannel.com/runninginjuries/index.shtml
Iliotibial Band Syndrome. Dr. Stephen M. Pribut's Sports Pages. http://www.drpribut.com/sports/spitb.html
Heel Pain: Plantar Fasciitis and Plantar Heel Pain Syndrome. Dr. Stephen M. Pribut's Sports Pages. http://www.drpribut.com/sports/heelhtm.html
Runner's Knee (Patellofemoral Pain). American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=a00382



Sports Therapy

By: Kayla Downes

I read the book, The Injured Athlete by Daniel N. Kulund. This book showed how to do exercises to help with an injury that was caused by a sport. There are many ways to go about treating specific injuries. Injuries in the leg require a much different exercise program than an injury to the back would require. When an athlete is injured, there are several steps to take in order to find out how to treat their injury. The first step is to find out the medical information of the patient and then the physician must give the patient a physical examination. Then the physician asks what sport the patient was playing when they got injured. And of course the physician finds where the athlete is injured and gives them a medical release form for that sport. Once a patient is diagnosed with a specific injury they are sent to some sort of physical therapy or are required to do physical therapy at home on their own.

For some patients, surgery is the only way to fix an injury. A torn ACL for example usually needs surgery in order to reset it. After surgery patients sometimes go to physical therapy to help strengthen their injured body.

What is an athletic physical therapist?
An athletic physical therapist is called a Certified Athletic Trainer (ATC). They play a very important role in injury prevention, acute injury assessment and post injury rehabilitation. ATCs are trained in strengthening and conditioning, preventative bracing and taping, rehabilitation of injuries, nutritional counseling and emergency action planning.
Sports Physical Therapy Careers in Sports Therapy

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Different Treatments for an Injury:

Ice- by applying ice to an injury, the swelling is decreased along with the pain that is caused from the swelling of muscles.
Compression- wrapping an injured muscle tightly and elevating the limb limits venous pooling and encourages and assists venous return to the heart.
'ISE'- ice, stretching and exercise. Ice allows the athlete to exercise without pain and then the athlete can stretch after exercise without pain as well.
Contrast- applying hot and cold to the injury.
Heat- increases blood flow resulting in an influx of oxygen and nutrients.
Massage- this can benefit the athlete mechanically, physiologically, and psychologically. Some massage techniques include: stroking, kneading, percussion and friction
Electrical Stimulation- stimulation of the nerves and neuromuscular stimulators.

Therapy for the Athlete's Back:
Sacroiliac Dysfunction-
  • 'Upslip' of the ilium- pelvis is elevated on one side.
  • 'Downslip' of the ilium- pelvis is depressed on one side.
  • Anterior rotation of the ilium- mobilization techniques and muscle energy techniques to correct rotational faults of the ilium.
  • Posterior rotation of the ilium- mobilization and muscle energy techniques used to correct a posteriorly rotated ilium.
  • Outflare faults of the ilium- a compressive force near the anterior iliac crests of the pelvis bilaterally.
  • Inflare faults of the ilium- compressive force on the iliac crests laterally near the anterior iliac crest bilaterally to stretch the anterior sacroiliac ligament and gap the sacroiliac joint anteriorly.
Some Types of Foot Injuries:
  • Subcutaneous Bursitis
  • "Runners Bump"
  • Retrocalcaneal Bony Prominence
  • Os Calcis Stress Fracture
  • Os Trigonum Pinch
  • "Black Dot Heel"
  • Plantar Fascial Tear
  • Navicular Stress Fracture
  • Cuboid Subluxation
Therapy for Certain Foot Injuries:
Instep Bruise- apply ice and use whirlpool treatments
Metatarsal Stress Fracture- ice, compression, and a forefoot strapping.
Metatarsalgia- 0.25 inch rubber rocker bottom is placed in the sole of the shoe.
"Runner's Bump"- athlete works on heel cord stretching, using a heel lift and wears shoes with wider heel.
Artificial Turf Toe- to reduce forefoot motion, players should wear a firmer shoe with a spring steel or orthoplast forefoot splint.



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Bibliography:

Kulund, Daniel N. The Injured Athlete. Virginia: J.B. Lippincott Company, 1988

"Athletic Training Services." Select Physical Therapy. 2008. 2 Dec. 2008. <http://www.selectphysicaltherapy.com/programs.asp?page=pt>


Nucleus Medical Art. 1999. 2 Dec. 2008. <http://catalog.nucleusinc.com/generateexhibit.php?ID=7365&ExhibitKeywordsRaw=Anatomy+of+the+Skeletal+System&TL=9985&A=2>